Toulmin model


The Toulmin model, or Toulmin schema, is a way of analyzing what goes on in most arguments. As we noted in our discussion of syllogisms, syllogistic reasoning is not what often occurs when people actually engage in argumentation, when conclusions ("claims," as we're calling them) are uncertain and so not absolute. In the late 1950s, the late British philosopher Stephen Toulmin devised a method for looking at informal argumentation that has proved highly useful and has replaced, in numerous instances, the syllogism of deductive logic in classes involving written or spoken argument. Linked here are three websites, all helpful, explaining how the model holds.

Toulmin model

Toulmin model (pdf)


Toulmin model